Description: What is the role of regional organizations in maintaining security across different parts of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)? How did COVID-19 impact states in the region and what types of collective action have helped respond to public health emergencies? In what way is LAC environmental policy formulated and what broader lessons can be drawn for the Global South? This edited volume addresses these questions, revealing the reasons behind the successes and failures of LAC regional responses to collective challenges as well as their limitations and potential for future improvement. It contains 11 chapters, authored by 16 authoritative academics who employ methodologically-diverse perspectives. Each chapter provides insights that would be of interest to scholars, students and policy-makers working on the regional governance of LAC and the Global South. The contributions are thematically organised in three parts and produced with pragmatic considerations in mind, discussing existing and potential real solutions to pressing issues.
Summary: Since 2022, Indian startups have been facing a “funding winter” as part of a global market correction in tech. Western startups with global ambitions such as Revolut and Stripe recently saw their perceived value drop by USD $18 and $28 billion, respectively. This mood change will inevitably continue to impact India, where most prominent startups rose as competitors to global tech companies. At their core, the services and business models of Swiggy, Flipkart, PayTM and Ola are fundamentally similar to those of Deliveroo, Amazon, N26 and Uber. This is unsurprising as over the past decade, the rise of tech startups around the world was dominated by digital platforms, which create new regulated marketplaces. However, this growth stage is over as the physical delivery of products and services now has to catch up with that of ordering them. This article argues the “rise of tech” is undergoing a radical transformation which India should embrace to further fuel its growth.
Description: This proceedings volume contains papers accepted by the 2022 International Conference on Business and Policy Studies (CONF-BPS 2022), which are carefully selected and reviewed by professional reviewers from corresponding research fields and the editorial team of the conference. This volume presents latest research achievements, inspirations, and applications in applied economy, finance, enterprise management, public administration, and policy studies. CONF-BPS hopes this volume could be inspiring and of academic value.Business and policy studies both are heated research topics and are related to multiple fields. Held by Eliwise Academy, CONF-BPS aims at bringing together intellectuals from related fields including applied economy, finance, and public administration for academic exchange. Its goal is to serve as an international platform for researchers to present latest research progress, share ideas and inspirations, and exchange experience. Through more academic communication and exchange, this conference hops to promote international corporation and joint initiatives in relevant fields. This volume will be of interest to researchers, academics, professionals, and policy makers in the field of business, economics, management, and policy studies.
Abstract: This article begins by re-opening the Third Great Debate which established division lines between mainstream (realist/liberal/constructivist) and Critical (neo-Marxist/neo-Gramscian) theories of International Relations based on their different assumptions about the nature of the international system: anarchy and hierarchy, respectively. The first half of the article argues that adopting common definitions of these concepts makes the anarchy–hierarchy debate theoretically irresolvable and further demonstrates that mainstream and Critical theories do not share an understanding of these terms neither between, nor within, their own traditions. The second half of this article challenges and aims to correct the interpretation of three key political thinkers, Halford J. Mackinder, W. E. B. DuBois and Norman Angell as appropriated within the inter-paradigm debates of International Relations. It argues that the respective associations of these thinkers with early realism, critical theories and early liberalism are intellectually misguiding because their works exhibit a common understanding of the ‘international’ across macro- and micro-dimensions, which is uncharacteristic of ‘-isms’. This shows that popular interpretations of pre-1919 works through post-1919 paradigms can obscure more than they reveal. These findings do not seek to present new ideas but to produce a reflexive critique of IR which illuminates some, perhaps unintended, counter-productive systemic effects that inter-paradigm divisions can have on the discipline.
Abstract: This article examines the rise of leftist ideology in Ecuador and Bolivia in light of their deepening economic relations with China from 2005 to 2014. First, it reveals that market trends account for trade fluctuations but fail to explain Chinese investment in, and some loan deals with Ecuador, as well as loans to Bolivia. Second, it demonstrates how these forms of funding provided alternatives to US-led international institutions, enabling Rafael Correa and Evo Morales to steer away from Western influence. Third, it contends that four factors led to a cyclic reinforcement of Chinese economic interests and the rise of leftist ideology in Ecuador and Bolivia, namely: mutual complementarity between China’s demand for energy / natural resource supply diversification and Pink Tide development agendas; US-China geopolitical competition for influence in Latin America; China’s experience in engaging with leftist governments from developing countries; and anti-Americanism shaping national identity in Ecuador and Bolivia.
Summary: During their 45-year history, China-EU relations progressed remarkably in quantitative terms but now, they require deeper political coordination to amplify the ripples of economic forces. Sustaining China-EU cooperation will be ever so important for the world’s economic recovery after COVID-19 as the two sides account for one-third of global GDP and conduct bilateral trade of over €1 billion per day. As demonstrated during the COVID-19 pandemic, China and Europe grow stronger together when they stand against natural forces that threaten the future of humanity and the planet. Containing pandemics and tackling climate change are global challenges that require a commitment to the universal value of protecting human life – which China and the EU already share. Cooperating on these issues is thus a rare but precious opportunity for China and Europe to align in terms of shared values as well as political and economic interests. If managed correctly, a strong China-EU relationship can improve the global standing of both parties. The quantitative fundamentals are present, now it is time to make qualitative adjustments after COVID-19.
Abstract: This article documents the academic writing course design process for advanced Chinese learners aiming to pursue postgraduate degrees in business-related fields at their respective target universities in the UK. It incorporates two sets of principles, a top-down and a bottom-up perspective. The former is framed within an understanding of EAP as academic, rather than language training. The latter is based on needs analysis of student-specific weaknesses explored through a questionnaire, a diagnostic test and in-class observations. This article reveals the challenges faced by EAP practitioners working with UK and Chinese institutions, and presents a middle ground approach to resolving tensions between top-down and bottom-up pressures in the context of course design for advanced Chinese graduates.
Abstract: Existing concepts (e.g. ‘non-interference’ and ‘pragmatism’) remain too vague to provide explanations for China’s increasingly assertive security policy. To avoid this pitfall, this article adopts a narrower focus on Chinese security policy towards Africa. It explores two contrasting cases, namely Sudan/South Sudan and Mali to demonstrate that China: a) pursues security engagement only after obtaining permission by relevant parties (UN; regional organizations; target state); b) favours peacekeeping (stability) over peacebuilding (arbitrary support for emerging regimes); c) strategically interweaves its economic goals and security policy strategy. The article thus re-conceptualizes China’s new security policy towards Africa as ‘consultative peacekeeping.’
Summary: Over half a million students leave China to study abroad every year, with the US (1), Australia (2), the UK (4) and Canada (5) being four of their top five destinations – but the seemingly smooth application process is paved with obstacles for students and foreign institutions alike. Instead of addressing the difficulties faced by Chinese students, Western institutions reach out to local agents and consultancies, offering them a percentage-based commission per recruited student. These institutions navigate their way into China inefficiently (through the help of third parties) and at the expense of mismatching student aims/expectations to student experiences. Local consultancies benefit by bridging the gap – but sometimes by offering sub-par advice, and in the context of balancing commitments to two parties. It is ultimately students and their families who are exposed to the risk of misinformation, and of making wrong decisions.
Description: There are two springs in Yingxiu, one on the buds of white jasmine, and another in people’s hearts. On May 12, 2008, at 2:28pm, the Wenchuan Earthquake struck Sichuan province and caused unprecedented damage to the entire region, turning the town of Yingxiu into rubble. The city of Dongguan was destined to shape the history of Yingxiu. One town in the north west mountainous areas of Sichuan, and another one in the southern vast grasslands of Guangdong were brought together to create a shared destiny for their peoples in a touching story of sincere, brotherly love. On January 31 2011, two springs befell this blessed land. This book tells the story of how reconstruction staff overcame numerous obstacles, waging a battle against time and space. It explains the factors which brought relief to the families whose members fell victims to the Wenchuan earthquake and tells the story of Yingxiu’s restoration.